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With a collection of over 350 sources, each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions, this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the intellectual history and values of the Western tradition. Sources are grouped around important themes in European history--such as religion, education, and art and culture--so that students can analyze and compare multiple documents. The Eighth Edition features additional sources by and about women, completely revised chapters on modern Europe and its place in the contemporary world, and updates to introductions and review questions.
- This two-volume reader features over 350 sources, including 23 new documents in Volume I and 33 in Volume II.
- New! In Chapter 2, new passages from Exodus have been added to the section “Humaneness of Hebrew Law,” and the introduction has been rewritten and enriched.
- New! Chapter 3 now includes the section “Early Greek Philosophy: The Emancipation of Thought from Myth,” as well as Sophocles’ Antigone; Chapter 6 includes three new sections: the first covers The Dead Sea Scrolls, the second is on “Jews in the Era of Early Christianity,” and the third features Pope Gelasius I’s elucidation of the proper relationship between church and state.
- New! Chapter 7 contains a new section on jihad, as well as a new account by Bishop Martin of Braga about the persistence of paganism in the countryside.
- New! Chapter 8 now includes a reading on the “Alliance of German Towns to Protect Merchants” and new readings by Thomas Aquinas and Adelard of Bath. The section “The Jews in the Middle Ages” also has a new selection--an account of Philip II’s expulsion of the Jews from France, and the section “The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity” has a new selection on the extermination of the Albigensians (or Cathars).
- New! In Chapter 10, the section “The German Peasants Revolt” now includes passages from a pamphlet (by an unknown author) that clearly states the peasants’ grievances. The section “Spanish Oppression of Amerindians” in Chapter 11 has been enhanced, and Chapter 12 now begins with Nicholas Copernicus’ discussion of his breakthrough in astronomy that precipitated the Scientific Revolution.
- Detailed introductions and review questions put each source in its historical context and provide reinforcement for students.
- Sources are grouped together around important themes in European history--such as religion, education, and art and culture--so that students can analyze and compare multiple documents.
- The “Examining Primary Sources” prologue helps students succeed at the difficult task of reading and interpreting primary sources.
1. The Near East.
1. Mesopotamian Protest against Death: Epic of Gilgamesh. 2. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice: Code of Hammurabi. 3. Divine Kingship in Egypt: Hymns to the Pharaohs; Guidelines for the Ruler. 4. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten: Hymn to Aton. 5. Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt: Love Poetry; The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq. 6. Empire Builders: The Assyrian Empire, Inscription of Tiglathpileser I; The Persian Empire, Inscriptions of Cyrus and Darius I. 7. The Myth-Making Outlook of the Ancient Near East: Personification of Natural Objects; Lament for Ur, The Gods and Human Destiny.
2. The Hebrews.
1. Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology: Genesis. 2. Human Sinfulness: Genesis, The Origins of Sin. 3. The Covenant and the Ten Commandments: Exodus, The Covenant; Exodus, The Ten Commandments. 4. Humaneness of Hebrew Law: Exodus, Crime and Punishment; Leviticus, Neighbor and Community; Deuteronomy, Judges, Witnesses, and Justice. 5. God’s Greatness and Human Dignity: Psalm 8; Psalm 104. 6. The Problem of Undeserved Suffering: Job, “[God] destroys both the blameless and the wicked.” 7. The Age of Classical Prophecy: Amos and Isaiah, Social Justice; Isaiah, Peace and Humanity.
3. The Greeks.
1. Homer: The Educator of Greece: Homer, The Iliad. 2. Lyric Poetry: Sappho, Love, Passion, and Friendship. 3. Early Greek Philosophy: The Emancipation of Thought from Myth: Aristotle, Thales of Miletus; Anaximander; Aristotle, Pythagoras. 4. The Expansion of Reason: Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease, The Separation of Medicine from Myth; Thucydides, Method of Historical Inquiry; Critias, Religion as a Human Invention. 5. Humanism: Pindar, The Pursuit of Excellence; Sophocles, Lauding Human Talents. 6. The Persian Wars: Herodotus, The Histories. 7. Greek Drama: Sophocles, Antigone. 8. Athenian Greatness: Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles. 9. The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society: Euripides, Medea; Aristophanes, Lysistrata. 10. The Peloponnesian War: Thucydides, The Melian Dialogue and The Revolution at Corcyra. 11. Socrates: The Rational Individual: Plato, The Apology. 12. Plato: The Philosopher-King: Plato, The Republic. 13. Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics: Aristotle, History of Animals, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics. 14. Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Individualism: Plutarch, Cultural Fusion; Epicurus, Self-Sufficiency. 15. Greek Culture and the Jews in the Hellenistic Age: First Book of Maccabees, Jewish Resistance to Forced Hellenization; Philo of Alexandria, Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason and Revelation.
4. The Roman Republic.
1. Rome’s March to World Empire: Polybius, The Roman Army. 2. The Punic Wars: Livy, The Second Punic War: The Threat from Hannibal; Appian of Alexandria, The Third Punic War: The Destruction of Carthage. 3. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome: Lucretius, Denunciation of Religion; Cicero, Advocate of Stoicism; Cato the Elder, Hostility to Greek Philosophy. 4. Roman Slavery: Diodorus Siculus, Slaves: Torment and Revolt; Appian of Alexandria, The Revolt of Spartacus. 5. Women in Republican Society: Quintus Lucretius Vespillo, A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife. 6. The Decline of the Republic: Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus; Cicero, Justifying Caesar’s Assassination; Velleius Paterculus, The Triumph of Octavian; Sallust, Moral Deterioration.
5. The Roman Empire.
1. The Imperial Office: Augustus, The Achievements of the Divine Augustus; Tacitus, The Imposition of One-Man Rule. 2. Imperial Culture: Virgil, The Aeneid; Ovid, The Art of Love; Juvenal, The Satires. 3. Roman Stoicism: Seneca, The Moral Epistles; Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. 4. Roman Law: Justinian, Corpus Iurius Civilis. 5. Provincial Administration: Correspondence between Pliny the Younger and Emperor Trajan. 6. The Roman Peace: Aelius Aristides, The Roman Oration, The Blessings of the Pax Romana; Tacitus, The Other Side of the Pax Romana. 7. Third-Century Crisis: Dio Cassius, Caracalla’s Extortions; Petition to Emperor Phillip; Herodian, Extortions of Maximinus. 8. The Demise of Rome: Ammianus Marcellinus, The Battle of Adrianople; Salvian, Political and Social Injustice; Saint Jerome, The Fate of Rome; Pope Gregory I, The End of Roman Glory.
6. Early Christianity.
1. The Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel According to Saint Mark; The Gospel According to Saint Matthew. 2. The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Qumran Community, The Community Rule. 3. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning: Tertullian, What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens?; Clement of Alexandria, In Defense of Greek Learning; Saint Augustine, Appropriating Pagan Learning and Institutions for Christian Ends. 4. The Persecutions: Persecutions at Lyons and Vienne. 5. Monastic Life: Saint Jerome, The Agony of Solitude in the Desert; Cassian of Marseilles, On the Dangers and Fruits of Solitude; Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Benedictine Rule. 6. Christianity and Society: Lactantius, Acquisitiveness as the Source of Evil; Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Christian Way of Life; The Apostle Paul, The Submissive Role of Women. 7. Jews in the Era of Early Christianity: Saint John Chrysostom, Christian Demonization of Jews; Rabbinic Judaism: Ethical Concerns. 8. Church and State: Pope Gelasius I, Letter to Emperor Anastasius. 9. The Christian World-View: Saint Augustine, The City of God.
Part II: THE MIDDLE AGES.
7. The Early Middle Ages.
1. The Byzantine Cultural Achievement: Theophylact Simocattes, The Value of Reason and History. 2. Islam: The Koran. 3. Muslim Relations with Christians and Jews: Legal Texts and Decrees: Restrictions on Dhimmis. 4. Jihad: Sayings Attributed to the Prophet: Ibn Taymiyyah, The Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihad. 5. Islam and Greek Learning: Avicenna, Love of Learning. 6. Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity: Bede, History of the English Church and People; Einhard, Forcible Conversion under Charlemagne; Martin of Braga, The Persistence of Paganism in the Countryside. 7. The Transmission of Learning: Cassiodorus, The Monk as Scribe. 8. The Carolingian Renaissance: Einhard, Charlemagne’s Appreciation of Learning; Charlemagne, An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters. 9. The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior: Galbert of Bruges, Commendation and the Oath of Fealty; Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, Obligations of Lords and Vassals; Bertran de Born, In Praise of Combat. 10. The Burdens of Serfdom: Bishop Adalbero of Laon, The Tripartite Society; Ralph Glaber, Monk of Cluny, Famine; William of Jumièges and Wace, Failed Rebellion.
8. The High and Late Middle Ages.
1. The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns: How to Succeed in Business; Ordinances of the Guild Merchant of Southampton; Alliance of German Towns to Protect Merchants, 1253. 2. Papal Supremacy: Pope Gregory VII, The Dictatus Papae; Pope Innocent III, “Royal Power Derives Its Dignity from the Pontifical Authority.” 3. The Crusades: Robert the Monk, Appeal of Urban II to the Franks; William of Tyre, The Capture of Jerusalem; James of Vitry, “The Remission of Sins and the Reward of Eternal Life.” 4. Religious Dissent: Thomas Aquinas, Death for Unrepentant Heretics; Bernard Gui, The Waldensian Teachings. 5. Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith: Adelard of Bath, A Questioning Spirit; Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica. 6. Medieval Universities: Geoffrey Chaucer, an Oxford Cleric; Student Letters; A Wandering Scholar, “In the Tavern Let Me Die.” 7. The Jews in the Middle Ages: Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle, Massacre of the Jews of Mainz; A Decree by Pope Innocent III; The Libel of Ritual Murder; Philip II Augustus, Expulsion of the Jews from France; Maimonides, Jewish Learning. 8. Troubadour Love Songs: Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous. 9. The Status of Women in Medieval Society: Jacopone da Todi, Praise of the Virgin Mary, “O Thou Mother, Fount of Love”; Christine de Pisan, The City of Ladies; A Merchant of Paris, On Love and Marriage. 10. Sexual Nonconformity: Satan’s Lures: Robert of Flamborough, Prohibition of Sexual Sins; Peter Damian, Condemnation of Homosexuality. 11. Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty: John of Salisbury, Policraticus, A Defense of Tyrannicide; Magna Carta. 12. The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity: Jean de Venette, The Black Death; Sir John Froissart, The Peasant Revolt of 1381; John Wycliffe, Concerning the Pope’s Power; Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Exterminating the Cathars; Marsilius of Padua, Attack on the Worldly Power of the Church. 13. The Medieval World-View: Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III), On the Misery of the Human Condition; The Vanity of This World; Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy.
Part III: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.
9. The Renaissance.
1. The Humanists’ Fascination with Antiquity: Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and A Humanist Educational Program; Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies. 2. Human Dignity: Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man. 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince. 4. The Ideal Gentleman: Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier. 5. Renaissance Art and Science: Leonardo da Vinci, Observation and Mathematical Perspective; Leonardo on His Own Genius. 6. The Spread of the Renaissance: François Rabelais, Celebration of the Worldly Life; William Shakespeare, Human Nature and the Human Condition.
10. The Reformation.
1. A Catholic Critic of the Church: Desiderius Erasmus, In Praise of Folly. 2. The Lutheran Reformation: Martin Luther, On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, The Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy; Ulrich von Hutten, Resentment of Rome. 3. The German Peasants’ Revolt: Anonymous, To the Assembly of the Common Peasantry; Martin Luther, Against the Peasants. 4. Luther and the Jews: Martin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies. 5. The Calvinist Reformation: John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion. 6. The Catholic Response to Protestantism: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. 7. Religious Persecution: Chronicle of King Francis I, Burning of Protestants in Paris; The Persecution of Anabaptists: The Examination of Elizabeth Dirks; Menno Simons, An Anabaptist Rejection of the Use of Force.
11. Early Modern Society and Politics.
1. The Age of Exploration and Conquest: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico. 2. Spanish Oppression of Amerindians: Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubios, Justifying Spanish Domination of Amerindians; Bartolomé de las Casas, The Tears of the Indians. 3. Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of Holland: William Carr, The Dutch East India Company. 4. The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, Forced Conversion, Inquisition: Proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition: The Torture of Elvira del Campo; Damião de Gois, The Forced Conversion of Portuguese Jews. 5. The Atlantic Slave Trade: Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders, Buying and Transporting Africans; Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended; John Wesley, Thoughts Upon Slavery; Olaudah Equiano, Memoirs of a Former Slave. 6. The Witch Craze: Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Krämer, The Hammer of Witches; Johannes Junius, A Confession of Witchcraft Explained; Nicholas Malebranche, Search After Truth. 7. The Court of Louis XIV: Duc de Saint-Simon, An Assessment of Louis XIV; Liselotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte d’Orleans), A Sketch of Court Life. 8. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. 9. A Secular Defense of Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. 10. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution: The English Declaration of Rights.
12. The Scientific Revolution.
1. The Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Cardinal Bellarmine, Attack on the Copernican Theory. 2. Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition. 3. Prophet of Modern Science: Francis Bacon, Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science. 4. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method: William Harvey, The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. 5. The Autonomy of the Mind: René Descartes, Discourse on Method. 6. The Mechanical Universe: Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica.
13. The Enlightenment.
1. The Enlightenment Outlook: Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty: John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. 3. Attack on Religion: Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d’Holbach, Good Sense. 4. Epistemology and Education: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude Helvétius, Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man. 5. Compendium of Knowledge: Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. 6. Rousseau: Political Reform: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract. 7. Humanitarianism: Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard, Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia “Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce…”; Marquis de Condorcet, The Evils of Slavery. 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society: Voltaire, Candide; Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. 9. On the Progress of Humanity: Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.