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This unique primary source reader provides first-hand accounts of the events described in Middle Eastern history survey texts. The text is organized into ten chapters featuring chapter introductions and headnotes. The primary source documents cover the late 18th century through the beginning of the 21st, exploring political, social, economic, and cultural history and infusing the volume with the voices of real people.
- As a primary source based reader, the text brings voices of the modern Middle East directly to students.
- One-third of the book has changed through the removal of some documents, the abridgement of others, and the addition of new ones. The changes were meant to accomplish two things: to augment the number of documents pertaining to social and cultural history; and to reformulate the last chapter (Chapter 10) completely to include documents pertaining to the invasion of Iraq and documents that highlight the complexity and nuances that define Middle Eastern societies and people today. The revision has also focused the book completely on the Middle East to the exclusion of North Africa. The Second Edition features discussion questions to help make this text more helpful in a classroom environment.
- Social and cultural history are featured prominently throughout the book.
Part I: THE MIDDLE EAST IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
1. Central Political Reforms and Local Responses.
The Hatt-I-Serif Decree Initiates the Tanzimat, or Reform, Period in the Ottoman Empire, November 3, 183.9. An Ottoman Government Decress Defines the Official Nation of the "Modern" Citizen, June 19, 1870. Mirza Malkum Khan Satirizes Iran''s Central Government and Religious Elite, 1880s. Jamal al-Din Al-Afghani Answers Ernest Renan''s Criticism of Islam, May 18, 1883. Baghdadi Jews React to the Modernization of the Ottoman Empire, May 28, 1908.
2. Economic Changes.
The Treaty of Peace and Commerce (Treaty of Turkmanchai) Between Iran and Russia, February 10-22, 1828. An Egyptian Khedival Decree Establishes a European-Controlled Public Debt Administration, May 2, 1876. The Concession for the Tobacco Monopoly in Iran, March 8, 1890. Tobacco Smuggling and the French Régie Monopoly in the Ottoman Empire, 1895. A Coal Miner''s Life During the Late Ottoman Empire.
3. Social and Cultural Reforms.
Rifa''a Tahtawi Reflects on Paris, Its People, Their Ideas and Lives in the 1820s. Qasim Amin Argues for the Emancipation of Women in Egypt, 1900. Teachers of the Alliance Israélite Universelle Write About Child Marriages, Domestic Violence, and the Treatment of Children Among Jews in North Africa, 1902-1915. Articles in Iranian Magazines Emphasize the Link Between the Education of Girls and the Advancement of Iranian Society, 1907, 1909. Bahithat al-Badiya Advocates Greater Educational and Economic Rights for Egyptian Women, 1909.
Part II: MAKING NATIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST, 1900 - 1949.
4. Ideas of Nationalism.
Leo Pinsker, a Jewish Intellectual, Proposes a "Jewish Homeland," 1882. Ahad Ha-Am''s "The Jewish State and the Jewish Problem," a Counterargument to the Idea of a Jewish State, 1897. The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, Negotiating the Establishment of an "Arab Kingdom" in the Middle East, 1915. The Balfour Declaration, Stating the British Government''s Support for a Jewish Homeland in Palestine, and Discussions Leading to Issuing It in 1917. Division of the Ottoman Empire: The Treaty of Sèvres, August 10, 1920. ''Ali ''Abd al-Raziq, an Egyptian Religious Scholar, Argues for the Separation of State and Religion, 1928. Antun Sa''adeh Declares His Vision of "Greater Syria" or Regional Nationalism, June 1, 1935. Syrian Michel ''Aflaq Addresses the Relationship Between Arabism and Islam, 1943. Hasan al-Banna Proclaims Egyptian Nationalism and the Religious Basis for an Islamic State, 1949.
5. Contested Nationalisms.
Henry Morgenthau Recounts Aspects of Nationalist-Driven Ethnic Cleansing of Armenians in Turkey, 1915. The Zionist Organization''s Memorandum to the Peace Conference in Versailles Asks for Support for the Establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine, February 3, 1919. The Resolution of the Greater Syrian Congress at Damascus Proclaims Arab Sovereignty over Greater Syria, July 2, 1919. The American King-Crane Commission Report Summarizes the Popular Ideas of Nationalism in the Middle East, 1919 A Writer for al-Asima, the Syrian Government Newspaper, Seeks to Establish the Popular Idea of the "Nation," October 23, 1919. Women and the Vote in Syria: A Parliamentary Debate About the Relationship Between Gender and Citizenship in the Proposed State, April 25, 1920. The Contest for Alexandretta Between Syria and Turkey, May 1938. The Arab Case for Palestine and the Case for a Binational State, March 1946. President Harry Truman''s Statement Supporting Jewish Immigration into Palestine, October 4, 1946.
Part III. THE RISE OF POSTINDEPENDENCE STATES (1950-2000).
6. Restricting Authority.
Asadollah Alam''s Diary Details Some Elements of the Shah of Iran''s Rule in 1976 and 1977. Iraq''s Saddam Hussein Proclaims History as a Tool for Educating the Masses About the Revolution and Comments on the Role of Women in the Revolution, 1975, 1978. The Constitution of Saudi Arabia Bases the Legitimacy of the Ruling House of Saud on Religion, 1992.
7. Crisis of the State.
Egyptian President Abdel Nasser Resigns from Office Following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, June 9, 1967. Sadiq al-''Azm, an Arab Intellectual, Critiques the Arab State and Clergy for Their Use of Religion, 1968. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Denounces the Rule of the Shah of Iran, 1975. Documents About One of the Major Political Arguments Underlying the Lebanese Civil War, 1975. American Consular Documents Reveal the Diplomats'' Assessment of the Revolution in Iran, 1978. The Massacre of the Muslim Brothers of Syria in Hama, 1982. Prime Minister Rabin''s speech to the Knesset on Israeli Occupation of Palestinian Territories, April 18, 1994. Hanan Mikhail-Ashrawi''s The Meaning of the Intifada, 1989. Report on Arab Israelis: Breaking the Stranglehold of Alienation, October, 27, 2000.
Part IV. THE MIDDLE EAST TODAY.
8. Islamic Political Movements Since 1964
Egyptian Writer Sayyid Qutb Articulates a New, Influential Vision of Jihad, 1964. Iranian Intellectual Ali Shari''ati Examines Man from the Viewpoint of Islam, 1968. Egyptian Editorialist Farag Foda Critiques Islamic Movements in Egypt, 1989 and 1992. Islamist Usama Bin Laden Calls on Muslims to Take Up Arms Against America, 1998. Reflections on the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.
9. Subaltern Groups.
The Arab Women''s Court Vows to Resist Violence Against Women, 1995 and 1998. Internet Discussion of Marriage and Education for Saudi Women, 1996. A Kurdish Activist''s Letter Appealing to Berna Yilmaz, the Spouse of the Turkish Prime Minister, September 27, 1998. Journalist Lilian Liang Discusses Homosexuality in Egypt, 1999. Arab and Israeli Soccer Players Discuss Ethnic Relations in Israel, 2000. Self-Reflection by the Communist Party of Iran, 2001. Young Veiled Women Embracing Their Lovers and Creating for Themselves Boundaries of Freedom, 2008. A Saudi Rap Band Seeks to Spread Culture of Hip Hop in Arab Societies, 2008.
10. The Middle East in the 21st Century.
Freedom and the Future, a Speech by George W. Bush,February 27, 2003. Don''t Attack Saddam, by Former U.S. National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, August 15, 2002. Bush Recasts Rationale for War after Report, October 10, 2004. Globalization and Education in the MIddle East, June 1, 2006. Dishing Democracy: Satellite Television in the Arab World, July 31, 2007. Al-Jazeera: the World Through Arab Eyes, June 16, 2005. Islam Can Vote, If We Let It, May 21, 2005. Sectarian Conflict: Who''s to Blame, April 2008. Bin Laden and Obama''s Invasion, November 2008. Victims of "American Bombs" in South Lebanon Vote for Barack Obama, November 2008.