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Incorporating a wealth of practice exercises and high-interest readings, READING FOR THINKING focuses on improving reading skills at the “micro-level” and moving on to the “macro-level.” Over half of the book is devoted to evaluating, drawing inferences, and identifying tone, bias, and purpose. The Seventh Edition continues to focus on developing students’ comprehension and critical-thinking skills. Flemming uses a carefully designed sequence of explanations and exercises that allows students to approach critical reading as a natural extension of essential comprehension skills, rather than a discrete set of new strategies. Armed with the ability to both analyze and evaluate a writer’s work, students apply those twin intellectual tools to Flemming’s trademark high-interest readings to determine purpose, analyze evidence, detect bias, recognize tone, and compare opposing points of view. Vocabulary quizzes have been added to each chapter.
- A new format with two sets of textbook and newspaper selections integrates longer, multi-page readings into the middle and end of the book so that students can easily review everything they have learned.
- Chapter 1 offers specific strategies for dealing with hypertext, along with a check list for evaluating websites. Web Follow Ups are included in every chapter in order to build background knowledge and encourage sustained thought on the Web.
- A revised sequence of instruction takes students step by step from determining main ideas to more advanced analysis such as synthesizing several readings focused on the same topic.
- Each chapter include a series of Allusion Alerts, introducing students to the allusions most likely to appear in textbooks, newspapers, and essays.
- Stimulating, multi-page readings in the middle and end of the book give students a chance to review and refine every skill and concept learned, while also expressing their own opinion on current topics.
- A carefully designed sequence of instruction takes students step by step from determining main ideas to more advanced activities such as paraphrasing, outlining, summarizing, and synthesizing different readings on the same topic.
- Each chapter includes a series of Allusion Alerts, introducing students to the allusions most likely to appear in textbooks, newspapers, and essays.
- Chapter 1 offers specific strategies for dealing with hypertext, along with a check list for evaluating websites. Web Follow Ups are included in every chapter in order to build background knowledge and encourage students to do sustained and focused work on the Web.
1. ACQUIRING THE KEYS TO ACADEMIC SUCCESS.
Make Sure You Have a Study Method for Completing Textbook Assignments. SQ3R is Worth the Effort. S: Survey. Q: Question. R-1: Read. R-2: Recall. R-3: Review. Mark Pages While You Read. Symbols for Underlining and Annotating. Paraphrase to Monitor Comprehension and Encourage Remembering. Paraphrase in Marginal Notes. Pointers on Paraphrasing While Reading. Get into the Habit of Using Summaries for Note-Taking. Goal of Summarizing. Summarize Selectively. Summaries are an Essential Part of College Coursework. Pointers for Summary Writing. Use the World Wide Web to Build Background Knowledge. Looking for Background Knowledge on the Web. Selecting the Right Site. Creating Effective Search Terms. Pointers for Picking a Website. A Note on Wikipedia. Fact-Checking Websites. Avoid Websites Expressing a Strong Bias. Website Evaluation Checklist. Digging Deeper: Oceanic Seafarers Colonized Distant Islands. Test 1: Using SQ3R. Test 2: Recognizing an Accurate Paraphrase. Test 3: Recognizing an Accurate Paraphrase. Test 4: Paraphrasing with Accuracy. Test 5: Recognizing the Better Summary.
2. VOCABULARY BUILDING FOR COLLEGE READING.
Master the Specialized Vocabulary in Your Courses. Look for Words That Get Extra Attention. Be on the Lookout For Ordinary Words that Double as Specialized Vocabulary. Use the Glossary for Troublesome Definitions. Make Use of Online Dictionaries. Build Up Your General Academic Vocabulary. Pay Attention to Any Words Followed by Definitions. Notice Word Repetition. Words Common to Politics, Government, and History. Words Common to Psychology and Sociology. Learn New Words by Creating Your Own Recall Cues. Linking Words to Images also Helps. Use Antonyms as Recall Cues. Use Context Clues for General Vocabulary. Contrast Clues. Restatement Clues. Example Clues. General Knowledge Clues. Learning Common Word Parts. Make Allusions Part of Vocabulary Building. Allusions and Common Knowledge. Learning Common Allusions. Allusions Common to History, Politics and Government. Allusions Common to Finance and Economics. Digging Deeper: Mad for Words. Test 1: Learning the Language of Government. Test 2: Learning the Vocabulary of Psychology. Test 3: Using Context Clues. Test 4: Interpreting Common Cultural Allusions.
3. REVIEWING PARAGRAPH ESSENTIALS.
Start With the Topic. Phrasing the Topic. Use the Topic to Discover the Main Idea. Learn How Textbooks Introduce Topic Sentences. Note How Introductory Sentences Team Up with Reversal Transitions. Question-and-Answer Topic Sentences. Word Check I. Concentrate on Paraphrasing Topic Sentences. Consider the Core Elements First. The Function of Supporting Details. Types of Supporting Details. Minor Details Can Be Meaningful. Key Words and Supporting Details. Transitional Clues to Major Details. Expanding the Definition of Transitions. Addition or Continuation Transitions. Digging Deeper: Peter Singer and Animal Rights. Word Check II. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 3: Recognizing Topics and Topic Sentences. Test 4: Recognizing Topic Sentences and Accurate Paraphrases. Test 5: Recognizing and Paraphrasing Topic Sentences. Test 6: Taking Stock.
4. IDENTIFYING AND LEARNING FROM ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS.
Pattern 1: Definition. Typical Topic Sentences. Multiple-Definition Paragraphs. Tables. Pattern 2: Process. Verbal Clues to the Pattern. Transitions Identifying a Sequence of Steps. Typical Topic Sentences. Flow Charts. Pattern 3: Sequence of Dates and Events. Transition Clues. Time-Order Transitions. Typical Topic Sentences. Pattern 4: Simple Listing. Typical Topic Sentences. Pattern 5: Classification. Typical Topic Sentences. Pattern 6: Comparison and Contrast. Typical Topic Sentences. Transitions That Introduce Similarity. Transitions That Signal a Difference. Pattern 7: Cause and Effect. Typical Topic Sentences. Transitions That Signal Cause and Effect. Verbs That Connect Cause and Effect. Common Connectives. Conjunctions. Additional Conjunctions that Signal Cause and Effect. Chain of Cause and Effect. Be Alert to Mixed Patterns of Equal Importance. Combined Patterns Aren’t Always Equal. Evaluate the Importance of Each Organizational Pattern. Common Combinations. Word Check. Digging Deeper: Oliver Wendell Holmes and Freedom of Speech. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 3: Recognizing Organizational Patterns. Test 4: Recognizing Organizational Patterns. Test 5: Taking Stock.
5. UNDERSTANDING, OUTLINING, AND SUMMARIZING LONGER READINGS.
Understanding Longer Readings. The Main Idea Controls More Than a Paragraph. Several Sentences May Be Needed to Express the Main Idea. Introductions Can Get Longer. Thesis Statements Don’t Wait Until the End to Appear. One Supporting Detail Can Take Up Several Paragraphs. A Minor Detail Can Occupy an Entire Paragraph. Remember: Main Ideas Aren’t All Equal. Thinking About Purpose. Persuasive Writing. Writers Whose Primary Intent is to Inform. Writers Whose Primary Intent is to Persuade. Outlining Longer Readings. Start with the Title. Follow with the Thesis Statement. Use Key Words in the Thesis Statement to Select Details. Streamline the Major Details. Include any Essential Minor Details. Indent to Reveal Relationships. Be Consistent. Word Check I. Summarizing Longer Readings. Sample Scratch List. Analyzing the List. Evaluating Details. Word Check II. Digging Deeper: Can We Trust Our Memories? Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Identifying the Controlling Main Idea and Author’s Purpose. Test 3: Recognizing Thesis Statements and Supporting Details. Test 4: Identifying Thesis Statements and Creating Informal Outlines. Test 5: Creating Scratch Lists of Main Ideas. Test 6: Writing Summaries. Test 7: Taking Stock. Putting It All Together. Reviewing with Longer Readings Reading 1: Heredity or Environment: What Can Identical Twins Tell Us? Reading 2: Media Multi-taskers Pay a Mental Price. Reading 3: Property Rights: A Matter of Power. Reading 4: Dealing with Conflict
6. THE ROLE OF INFERENCES IN COMPREHENSION AND CRITICAL READING.
Drawing Inferences to Make Connections. Nouns and Pronouns. Tricky Pronouns and Antecedents. Looking at This and That. Keep an Eye on Which. General Category Substitutes. Substitute by Association. Inferring Main Ideas. The Difference Between Logical and Illogical Inferences. Evaluating Inferences. Drawing Inferences about Supporting Details. Writers and Readers Collaborate. Word Check I. Implied Main Ideas in Longer Readings. Making Connections Between Paragraphs. Drawing Logical Conclusions. Word Check II. Digging Deeper: J. Robert Oppenheimer and The Manhattan Project. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 3: Drawing Inferences About Pronouns and Other Noun Substitutes. Test 4: Recognizing the Implied Main Idea. Test 5: Drawing an Effective Inference. Test 6: Inferring Main Ideas and Supporting Details. Test 7: Drawing Your Own Conclusions. Test 8: Inferring Implied Main Ideas in Longer Readings. Test 9: Taking Stock.
7. SYNTHESIZING SOURCES.
Synthesizing Sources. Synthesizing to Inform or Persuade. Step-by-Step Synthesizing. Keep Your Purpose in Mind. Ten Questions for Synthesizing Sources. Synthesizing Longer Readings. Creating a Synthesis. Synthesis Statements Aren’t Created with a Cookie Cutter. Word Check. Digging Deeper: Reading 1: If Your Password it 123456, Just Make it Hack Me. Reading 2: Information Security. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Recognizing Correct Synthesis Statements. Test 3: Recognizing Effective Synthesis Statements. Test 4: Taking Stock.
8. UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FACT AND OPINION
Facts Versus Opinions. Obscure Facts. Changing Facts. Calling It a Fact Doesn’t Necessarily Make It One. Finding Facts on the World Wide Web. Opinions. You Can’t Verify Opinions. Be Alert to Opinions Mixed in with Facts. Connotative Language Is the Language of Personal Evaluation. Changing the Connotation with the Context. Informed Versus Uninformed Opinions. Checking for Relevance in Longer Readings. Separate Fact and Opinion in Textbooks. Opinions in Textbook Writing Aren’t Always Knowingly Included. Check For Supporting Details. Opinions on the Web. How Expert is an Amateur Web Expert? Word Check. Digging Deeper: Encouraging Ethical Behavior in the Corporate World. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion. Test 3: Checking for Relevance. Test 4: Checking for Relevance. Test 5: Taking Stock.
9. MORE ON PURPOSE AND TONE.
Make a Prediction about Purpose. The Source is a Clue to Purpose. The Author’s Background is Significant. Titles Supply Clues to Purpose. Emphasis on the Word “Primary”. Point of View Often Peeks Out of Informative Writing. The Main Idea Will Usually Be the Clincher. Main Ideas in Informative Writing. Main Ideas in Persuasive Writing. Purpose and Figurative Language. Similes. Metaphors. Pros and Cons. Tone and Purpose. Tone, Persuasion and Bias. Thinking About Tone From the Writer’s Perspective. A Writer’s Tone Consists of Many Different Elements. A Range of Tones Writers Can Use. Textbook Neutrality. Complete Neutrality is Hard to Come By. Irony and Persuasion. Word Check. Digging Deeper: Baseball Invades Japan. Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Identifying Purpose. Test 3: Recognizing Tone. Test 4: Taking Stock.
10. ANALYZING ARGUMENTS.
Opinions Are the Foundations of Arguments. Five Common Types of Support. Personal Experience. Reasons. Examples and Illustrations. Expert Opinions. Research Results. Flawed Arguments. Irrelevant Reasons. Circular Reasoning. Hasty Generalizations. Unidentified Experts. Inappropriate Experts. Unidentified Research. Dated Research. Identifying the Opposing Point of View. More About Recognizing When Bias Become Excessive. Distracting with Personal Character Attacks. Welcome to the Slippery Slope. If Reason Fails, Try Insults. Word Check. Digging Deeper: What Exactly is a Frivolous Lawsuit? Test 1: Reviewing New Vocabulary. Test 2: Analyzing Arguments. Test 3: Analyzing Arguments. Test 4: Recognizing Excessive Bias. Test 5: Taking Stock. Putting It All Together. Reading 1: Are Today’s Students Lacking In Empathy? Reading 2: Down with Taxes! Reading 3: Holden Who? Reading 4: Dating Violence.
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
READING KEYS – the first in a three-book reading series by Laraine Flemming – offers a comprehensive introduction to reading skills and strategies for introductory readers (levels 6-8), from using context clues to identifying purpose and bias. Clear, accessible explanations present reading concepts without oversimplifying the process of reading comprehension. To ensure students' understanding, reading "keys" or summaries follow the explanations, breaking them down into manageable chunks. Throughout each chapter, a variety of steadily more difficult exercises assess students' understanding of the material and promote improved comprehension and critical-thinking skills. This incremental approach to instruction and assessment makes it easier for beginning readers to absorb and master new information. The Fourth Edition includes new chapters on analyzing arguments and sentence relationships. In addition, there is a greater emphasis on recognizing and understanding verbal clues to meaning, new discussions on how the brain learns and remembers new information, and several new engaging readings.
READING KEYS – the first in a three-book reading series by Laraine Flemming – offers a comprehensive introduction to reading skills and strategies, from using context clues to identifying purpose and bias. Clear, accessible explanations present reading concepts without oversimplifying the process of reading comprehension. To ensure students' understanding, reading "keys" or summaries follow the explanations, breaking them down into manageable chunks. Throughout each chapter, a variety of steadily more difficult exercises assess students' understanding of the material and promote improved comprehension and critical-thinking skills. This incremental approach to instruction and assessment makes it easier for beginning readers to absorb and master new information. The Fourth Edition includes new chapters on analyzing arguments and sentence relationships. In addition, there is a greater emphasis on recognizing and understanding verbal clues to meaning, new discussions on how the brain learns and remembers new information, and several new engaging readings.