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Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense 11th Edition

Thomas R. Arp, Greg Johnson

  • Published
  • Previous Editions 2009, 2006, 2002
  • 1700 Pages


An authoritative bestseller for over fifty years, PERRINE’S LITERATURE: STRUCTURE, SOUND, AND SENSE continues to be an essential and highly effective introduction to literature for today’s students. Written for students beginning a serious study of literature, the text introduces the fundamental elements of fiction, poetry, and drama in a concise and engaging way, addressing vital questions that other texts tend to ignore, such as “Is some literature better?” and “How can it be evaluated?” A remarkable selection of classic, modern, and contemporary readings serves to illustrate the elements of literature and ensure broad appeal to students of diverse backgrounds and interests. Now thoroughly updated with nearly eighty new stories, poems, and plays by some of the finest authors of any era, the eleventh edition remains true to Perrine’s original vision while addressing the needs of a new generation of students.

Thomas R. Arp, Southern Methodist University

Thomas R. Arp received a B.A. in English from the University of Michigan (1954) and a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship to Stanford University. In 1955–1956, he produced educational television for the University of Michigan. He received an M.A. in 1960 and a Ph.D. in 1962 -- both from Stanford. He taught at Bowdoin College, Princeton University, University of California at Berkeley, Hull University (England), and Southern Methodist University. Macmillan published his volume THE FORM OF POETRY in 1966, and he received a Fulbright lectureship at University of Bucharest (Romania) in 1969–1970. Arp joined Laurence Perrine in preparing revised editions of SOUND AND SENSE, STORY AND STRUCTURE, and LITERATURE: STRUCTURE, SOUND, AND SENSE beginning in 1982. He became sole author of the books in 1997 and was joined by Greg Johnson in 2002. Dr. Arp passed away in 2015.

Greg Johnson, Kennesaw State University

Greg Johnson received an M.A. in English from Southern Methodist University and a Ph.D. in English from Emory University. Dr. Johnson is the author of 12 books of fiction, poetry, criticism, and biography, including LAST ENCOUNTER WITH THE ENEMY (Johns Hopkins, 2004), WOMEN I'VE KNOWN: NEW AND SELECTED STORIES (Ontario Review, 2007), the novel STICKY KISSES (Alyson Books, 2001), and several books on Joyce Carol Oates, including INVISIBLE WRITER: A BIOGRAPHY OF JOYCE CAROL OATES (Dutton, 1998) and JOYCE CAROL OATES: CONVERSATIONS 1970–2006 (Ontario Review, 2006). He joined the author team of PERRINE'S LITERATURE in 2002 and has been the sole author since Thomas Arp's passing in 2015.
  • The addition of ten stories, sixty poems, and five plays reinvigorate Perrine’s classic collection, restoring favorites from earlier editions and adding exemplary works that represent a variety of voices and examples of superior writing, including works by Joyce Carol Oates, Elizabeth Strout, Mary Oliver, Seamus Heaney, Jane Martin, and Wendy Wasserstein.
  • With new stories, poems, and plays, including multiple works by such authors as Flannery O’Connor, Joyce Carol Oates, Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, the contemporary poets Billy Collins, Seamus Heaney, Sharon Olds, Pulitzer Prize-winning and National Book Award-winning poet Mary Oliver, as well as plays by dramatists Jane Martin and Wendy Wasserstein, the text reflects an increased focus on contemporary writers likely to be more familiar and appealing to a broad range of students.
  • Short stories new to the volume include works by Bernard Malamud, one of the most prominent figures in Jewish American literature, best-selling novelist Elizabeth Berg, and 2009 Pulitzer Prize winner Elizabeth Strout, author of a novel in stories.
  • The drama section again includes a variety of one-act plays to present a wider range of dramatic styles and approaches, new classics by Moliere and Chekhov, as well as plays by Jane Martin, Luiz Valdez, and Wendy Wasserstein to feature more contemporary playwrights of diverse backgrounds.
  • The drama section is populated with both classic and contemporary pieces, with a number of one-act plays providing breadth for student analysis.
  • In poetry and fiction, a compact anthology of additional selections for further reading provides enough examples to permit the comparative study by which literary merit is judged.
  • Following the fiction chapters, a special section containing three stories each by three writers--a classic (James Joyce), a modern (Flannery O’Connor), and a contemporary (Joyce Carol Oates)--offers students an in-depth study into the writings of these selected authors.
  • A collection of contemporary poetry in which four poets--Billy Collins, Seamus Heaney, Sharon Olds, and Mary Oliver--are represented by at least six poems each, offers students the opportunity to sample at greater length the works of poets of their own time.
  • Laurence Perrine’s exceptional introductions to the elements of literature have provided the template for imitators for more than fifty years. Updated with only the lightest touch, these concise guides to understanding fiction, poetry, and drama remain true to their original vision--and true to the serious study of literature.
  • The unique chapters on evaluating literature speak directly to students, with straightforward answers to the essential questions that most introductions to literature ignore: “Is some literature better?” and “How can it be evaluated?”
  • Exemplary literary selections throughout the text not only bring the elements of literature to life in crystal detail but they also represent the best and most important literature that many students will study in college.
Writing about Literature.
I. Why Write about Literature?
II. For Whom Do You Write?
III. Two Basic Approaches.
1. Explication. 2. Analysis.
IV. Choosing a Topic.
1. Papers That Focus on a Single Literary Work. 2. Papers of Comparison and Contrast. 3. Papers on a Number of Works by a Single Author. 4. Papers on a Number of Works with Some Feature Other Than Authorship in Common.
V. Proving Your Point.
VI. Writing the Paper.
VII. Writing In-Class Essays or Essay Tests.
VIII. Introducing Quotations (Q1-Q10).
IX. Documentation.
1. Textual Documentation (TD1-TD4). 2. Parenthetical Documentation (PD1-PD6). 3. Documentation by Works Cited. 4. Documentation of Electronic Sources.
X. Stance and Style (S1-S6).
XI. Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage: Common Problems.
1. Grammar (G1-G2). 2. Punctuation (P1-P5). 3. Usage (U1-U2).
XII. Writing Samples.
1. Fiction Explication: The Indeterminate Ending in “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” 2. Fiction Analysis: The Function of the Frame Story in “Once Upon a Time.” 3. Poetry Explication: “A Study of Reading Habits.” 4. Poetry Analysis: Diction in “Pathedy of Manners.” 5. Frama Explication: Iago’s First Soliloquy. 6. Drama Analysis: Othello’s Race.
The Elements of Fiction.
1. Reading the Story.
Reviewing Chapter One. Richard Connell, “The Most Dangerous Game.” Tobias Wolff, “Hunters in the Snow.” Understanding and Evaluating Fiction. Suggestions for Writing.
2. Plot and Structure.
Reviewing Chapter Two. Graham Greene, “The Destructors.” Alice Munro, “How I Met My Husband.” Jhumpa Lahiri, “Interpreter of Maladies.” Suggestions for Writing.
3. Characterization.
Reviewing Chapter Three. Alice Walker, “Everyday Use.” Katherine Mansfield, “Miss Brill.” James Baldwin, “Sonny’s Blues.” Suggestions for Writing.
4. Theme.
Reviewing Chapter Four. F. Scott Fitzgerald, “Babylon Revisited.” Anton Chekhov, “Misery.” Eudora Welty, “A Worn Path.” Nadine Gordimer, “Once Upon a Time.” Suggestions for Writing.
5. Point of View.
Reviewing Chapter Five. Willa Cather, “Paul’s Case.” Shirley Jackson, “The Lottery.” Katherine Anne Porter, “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.” Ernest Hemingway, “Hills Like White Elephants.” Suggestions for Writing.
6. Symbol, Allegory, and Fantasy.
Reviewing Chapter Six. D. H. Lawrence, “The Rocking-Horse Winner.” Nathaniel Hawthorne, “Young Goodman Brown.” Charlotte Perkins Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Gabriel Garcia Marquez, “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings.” Suggestions for Writing.
7. Humor and Irony.
Reviewing Chapter Seven. Frank O’Connor, “The Drunkard.” Margaret Atwood, “Rape Fantasies.” Albert Camus, “The Guest.” Suggestions for Writing.
8. Evaluating Fiction.
Reviewing Chapter Eight. Elizabeth Berg, “The Matchmaker.” Bernard Malamud, “The Magic Barrel.” Suggestions for Writing.
Three Featured Writers: James Joyce, Flannery O’Connor, Joyce Carol Oates.
James Joyce, “Araby.” “The Sisters.” “The Boarding House.”
Flannery O’Connor, “A Good Man Is Hard to Find.” “Everything That Rises Must Converge.” “Good Country People.”
Joyce Carol Oates, “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” “Life After High School.” “June Birthing.”
Stories for Further Reading.
John Cheever, “The Swimmer.” Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour.” William Faulkner, “A Rose for Emily.” Susan Glaspell, “A Jury of Her Peers.” Zora Neale Hurston, “Spunk.” Henry James, “The Real Thing.” Ursula K. Le Guin, “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.” Herman Melville, “Bartleby the Scrivener.” Edgar Allan Poe, “The Tell-Tale Heart.” Elizabeth Strout, “A Little Burst.” John Updike, “A & P.”
The Elements of Poetry.
1. What Is Poetry?
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “The Eagle.” William Shakespeare, “Winter.” Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est.” Reviewing Chapter One.
Understanding and Evaluating Poetry.
William Shakespeare, “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day.” Robert Hayden, “The Whipping.” Emily Dickinson, “The last Night that She lived.” Gwendolyn Brooks, “The Bean Eaters.” Dudley Randall, “Ballad of Birmingham.” William Carlos Williams, “The Red Wheelbarrow.” Lawrence Ferlinghetti, “Constantly risking absurdity.” Langston Hughes, “Suicide’s Note.” A. E. Housman, “Terence, this is stupid stuff.” Sir Philip Sidney, “Loving in truth.” Archibald MacLeish, “Ars Poetica.”
Suggestions for Writing.
2. Reading the Poem.
Thomas Hardy, “The Man He Killed.” Philip Larkin, “A Study of Reading Habits.” A. E. Housman, “Is my team plowing.”
John Donne, “Break of Day.” Emily Dickinson, “There’s been a Death, in the opposite house.” Ted Hughes, “Hawk Roosting.” Mari Evans, “When in Rome.” Sylvia Plath, “Mirror.” Thomas Hardy, “The Ruined Maid.” Linda Pastan, “Ethics.” Adrienne Rich, “Storm Warnings.” Suggestions for Writing.
3. Denotation and Connotation.
Emily Dickinson, “There is no Frigate like a Book.” William Shakespeare, “When my love swears that she is made of truth.” Ellen Kay, “Pathedy of Manners.” Exercises. Reviewing Chapter Three. Henry Reed, “Naming of Parts.” Langston Hughes, “Cross.” William Wordsworth, “The world is too much with us.” Robert Frost, “Desert Places.” Mary Oliver, “Spring in the Classroom.” John Donne, “A Hymn to God the Father.” Elizabeth Bishop, “One Art.” Sharon Olds, “35/10.” Miller Willilams, “My Wife Reads the Paper at Breakfast on the Birthday of the Scottish Poet.” Suggestions for Writing.
4. Imagery.
Robert Browning, “Meeting at Night.” Robert Browning, “Parting at Morning.” Gerard Manley Hopkins, “Spring.” William Carlos Williams, “The Widow’s Lament in Springtime.” Emily Dickinson, “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.” Adrienne Rich, “Living in Sin.” Seamus Heaney, “The Forge.” Robert Frost, “After Apple-Picking.” Robert Hayden, “Those Winter Sundays.” Jane Flanders, “Shopping in Tuckahoe.” Seamus Heaney, “An August Night.” Wallace Stevens, “The Snow Man.” John Keats, “To Autumn.” Suggestions for Writing.
5. Figurative Language I: Simile, Metaphor, Apostrophe, Personification, Metonymy.
Langston Hughes, “Harlem” (previously called “Dream Deferred”). Robert Frost, “Bereft.” Emily Dickinson, “It sifts from Leaden Sieves.” Anne Bradstreet, “The Author to Her Book.” Theodore Roethke, “The Sloth.” John Keats, “Bright Star.” Exercise. Richard Wilbur, “Mind.” Emily Dickinson, “I taste a liquor never brewed.” Sylvia Plath, “Metaphors.” Philip Larkin, “Toads.” Mary Oliver, “Picking Blueberries.” John Donne, “A Valediction Forbidding Mourning.” Andrew Marvell, “To His Coy Mistress.” Billy Collins, “Introduction to Poetry.” Suggestions for Writing.
6. Figurative Language 2: Symbol, Allegory.
Robert Frost, “The Road Not Taken.” Walt Whitman, “A Noiseless Patient Spider.” William Blake, “The Sick Rose.” Seamus Heaney, “Digging.” Robert Herrick, “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.” George Herbert, “Peace.” Exercises. Richard Wilbur, “The Writer.” Robert Frost, “Fire and Ice.” Christina Rossetti, “Up-Hill.” Robert Phillips, “Running on Empty.” Mary Oliver, “The Truro Bear.” Emily Dickinson, “Because I could not stop for Death.” John Donne, “Hymn to God My God, in My Sickness.” Billy Collins, “Weighing the Dog.” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Ulysses.” Suggestions for Writing.
7. Paradox, Overstatement, Understatement, Irony.
Emily Dickinson, “Much Madness is divinest Sense.” John Donne, “The Sun Rising.” Countee Cullen, “Incident.” Marge Piercy, “Barbie Doll.” William Blake, “The Chimney Sweeper.” Percy Bysshe Shelley, “Ozymandias.” Exercise. William Wordsworth, “A slumber did my spirit seal.” John Donne, “Batter my heart, three-personed God.” Elizavetta Ritchie, “Sorting Laundry.” Billy Collins, “The History Teacher.” Seamus Heaney, “Mid-Term Break.” Mary Oliver, “A Bitterness.” W. H. Auden, “The Unknown Citizen.” Lucille Clifton, “in the inner city.” Robert Browning, “My Last Duchess.” Suggestions for Writing.
8. Allusion.
Robert Frost, “Out, Out --.” William Shakespeare, from Macbeth (“She should have died hereafter”). Mary Oliver, “Lilies.” e. e. cummings, “in Just-.” John Milton, “On His Blindness.” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Miniver Cheevy.” Margaret Atwood, “Siren Song.” T. S. Eliot, “Journey of the Magi.” William Butler Yeats, “Leda and the Swan.” Suggestions for Writing.
9. Meaning and Idea.
Anonymous, “Little Jack Horner.” A. E. Housman, “Loveliest of Trees.” Robert Frost, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” Reviewing Chapter Nine. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The Rhodora: On Being Asked Whence Is the Flower.” Robert Frost, “Design.” Emily Dickinson, “I never saw a Moor.” Emily Dickinson, ““Faith” is a fine invention.” e. e. cummings, “O sweet spontaneous.” Walt Whitman, “When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer.” John Keats, “On the Sonnet.” Billy Collins, “Sonnet.” Natasha Tretheway, “Southern History.” Rita Dove, “Kentucky, 1833.” William Blake, “The Lamb.” William Blake, “The Tiger.” Suggestions for Writing.
10. Tone.
Denise Levertov, “To the Snake.” Emily Dickinson, “A narrow Fellow in the Grass.” Michael Drayton, “Since there’s no help.” Billy Collins, “Picnic, Lightning.” Reviewing Chapter Ten. William Shakespeare, “My mistress’ eyes.” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Crossing the Bar.” Thomas Hardy, “The Oxen.” Emily Dickinson, “One dignity delays for all.” Emily Dickinson, “‘Twas warm - at first - like Us.” John Donne, “The Apparition.” John Donne, “The Flea.” Richard Eberhart, “For a Lamb.” Mary Oliver, “The Rabbit.” Matthew Arnold, “Dover Beach.” Philip Larkin, “Church Going.” Suggestions for Writing.
11. Musical Devices.
Ogden Nash, “The Turtle.” W. H. Auden, “That night when joy began.” Theodore Roethke, “The Waking.” Gerard Manley Hopkins, “God’s Grandeur.” Exercise. William Shakespeare, “Blow, blow, thou winter wind.” Gwendolyn Brooks, “We Real Cool.” Maya Angelou, “Woman Work.” Sharon Olds, “Rite of Passage.” Emily Dickinson, “As imperceptibly as Grief.” Mary Oliver, “Music Lessons.” William Stafford, “Traveling through the dark.” Maura Stanton, “Song (After Shakespeare).” Robert Frost, “Nothing Gold Can Stay.” Suggestions for Writing.
12. Rhythm and Meter.
George Herbert, “Virtue.” Exercise. William Blake, “Introduction” to “Songs of Innocence.” Walt Whitman, “Had I the Choice.” Robert Frost, “The Aim Was Song.” George Gordon, Lord Byron, “Stanzas.” Sylvia Plath, “Old Ladies’ Home.” Maya Angelou, “Africa.” Linda Pastan, “To a Daughter Leaving Home.” James Wright, “A Blessing.” Robert Browning, “Porphyria’s Lover.” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Break, Break, Break.” Suggestions for Writing.
13. Sound and Meaning.
Anonymous, “Pease Porridge Hot.” A. E. Housman, “Eight O’Clock.” Alexander Pope, “Sound and Sense.” Emily Dickinson, “I heard a Fly buzz--when I died.” Exercise. Wilfred Owen, “Anthem for Doomed Youth.” Margaret Atwood, “Landcrab.” Pattianne Rogers, “Night and the Creation of Geography.” Maxine Kumin, “The Sound of Night.” Adrienne Rich, “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers.” Galway Kinnell, “Blackberry Eating.” Janet Lewis, “Remembered Morning.” William Carlos Williams, “The Dance.” Suggestions for Writing.
14. Pattern.
George Herbert, “The Pulley.” John Keats, “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer.” William Shakespeare, “That time of year.” Dylan Thomas, “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night.” Exercises. William Shakespeare, “From Romeo and Juliet.” John Donne, “Death be not proud.” William Butler Yeats, “The Folly of Being Comforted.” Claude McKay, “The White City.” Claude McKay, “America.” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “We Wear the Mask.” Robert Frost, “Acquainted with the Night.” Seamus Heaney, “Villanelle for an Anniversary.” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “The House on the Hill.” Robert Herrick, “Delight in Disorder.” Ben Jonson, “Still to be neat.” Suggestions for Writing.
15. Evaluating Poetry 1: Sentimental, Rhetorical, Didactic Verse.
“God’s Will for You and Me.” “Pied Beauty.” “A Poison Tree.” “The Most Vital Thing in Life.” “Lower New York : At Dawn.” “Composed upon Westminster Bridge.” “Piano.” “The Days Gone By.” “The Engine.” “I like to see it lap the Miles.” “When I Have Fears.” “O Solitude!” Suggestions for Writing.
16. Evaluating Poetry 2: Poetic Excellence.
John Donne, “The Canonization.” John Keats, “Ode on a Grecian Urn.” Emily Dickinson, “There’s a certain slant of light.” Robert Frost, “Home Burial.” T. S. Eliot, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.” Wallace Stevens, “Sunday Morning.” Langston Hughes, “The Weary Blues.” Elizabeth Bishop, “The Fish.” Featured Poets.
Emily Dickinson, “A Light exists in Spring.” “A narrow Fellow in the Grass.” “Apparently with no surprise.” “As imperceptibly as Grief.” “Because I could not stop for Death.” ““Faith” is a fine invention.” “I died for Beauty--but was scarce.” “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.” “I heard a Fly buzz--when I died.” “I like a look of Agony.” “I like to see it lap the Miles.” “I never saw a Moor.” “I taste a liquor never brewed.” “It sifts from Leaden Sieves.” “Much Madness is divinest Sense.” “One dignity delays for all.” “The last Night that She lived.” “There is no Frigate like a Book.” “There’s a certain Slant of light.” “There’s been a Death, in the Opposite House.” “‘Twas warm--at first--like Us.”
John Donne, “A Hymn to God the Father.” “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.” “At the round earth’s imagined corners.” “Batter my heart, three personed God.” “Break of Day.” “Death, be not proud.” “Hymn to God My God, in My Sickness.” “Song: Go and catch a falling star.” “The Apparition.” “The Canonization.” “The Flea.” “The Good-Morrow.” “The Indifferent.” “The Sun Rising.”
Robert Frost, “Acquainted with the Night.” “After Apple-Picking.” “Bereft.” “Birches.” “Desert Places.” “Design.” “Fire and Ice.” “Home Burial.” “Mending Wall.” “Nothing Gold Can Stay.” ““Out, Out--”.” “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” “The Aim Was Song.” “The Road Not Taken.”
Contemporary Collection.
Billy Collins, “Introduction to Poetry.” “Oh, My God.” “Picnic, Lightning.” “Sonnet.” “The Golden Years.” “The History Teacher.” “Weighing the Dog.”
Seamus Heaney, “An August Night.” “Digging.” “Follower.” “Mid-Term Break.” “The Forge.” “Villanelle for an Anniversary.”
Sharon Olds, “I Go Back to May 1937.” “My Son the Man.” “Rite of Passage.” “The Planned Child.” “The Victims.” “35/10.”
Mary Oliver, “A Bitterness.” “Lilies.” “Music Lessons.” “Picking Blueberries, Austerlitz, New York, 1957.” “Spring in the Classroom.” “The Black Snake.” “The Rabbit.”
Poems for Further Reading.
Kim Addonizio, “Sonnenizio on a Line from Drayton.” Nathalie Anderson, “The Miser.” W. H. Auden, “Musee des Beaux Arts.” Jimmy Santiago Baca, “Main Character.” Aphra Behn, “On Her Loving Two Equally.” D. C. Berry, “On Reading Poems to a Senior Class at South High.” Elizabeth Bishop, “Manners.” Gwendolyn Brooks, “a song in the front yard.” Elizabeth Barrett Browning, “Grief.” Amy Clampitt, “Witness.” Lucille Clifton, “good times.” Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Kubla Khan.” Billy Collins, “The Golden Years.” Billy Collins, “Oh, My God!” Stephen Crane, “War Is Kind.” e. e. cummings, “Buffalo Bill’s defunct.” e. e. cummings, “the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished rooms.” e. e. cummings, “Spring is like a perhaps hand.” Emily Dickinson, “A Light exists in Spring.” Emily Dickinson, “Apparently with no surprise.” Emily Dickinson, “I died for Beauty–but was scarce.” Emily Dickinson, “I like a look of Agony.” John Donne, “At the round earth’s imagined corners.” John Donne, “The Good-Morrow.” John Donne, “The Indifferent.” John Donne, “Song: Go and catch a falling star.” Rita Dove, “Persephone, Falling.” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “Sympathy.” Lawrence Ferlinghetti, “Christ climbed down.” Carolyn Forché, “The Colonel.” Robert Frost, “Birches.” Robert Frost, “Mending Wall.” Allen Ginsberg, “A Supermarket in California.” Thom Gunn, “From the Wave.” R. S. Gwynn, “Snow White and the Seven Deadly Sins.” Thomas Hardy, “Ah, are you digging on my grave?” Thomas Hardy, “Channel Firing.” Thomas Hardy, “The Subalterns.” Seamus Heaney, “Follower.” George Herbert, “Love.” A. E. Housman, “To an Athlete Dying Young.” Langston Hughes, “Aunt Sue’s Stories.” Langston Hughes, “Mother to Son.” Langston Hughes, “Negro Servant.” Langston Hughes, “Theme for English B.” Randall Jarrell, “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.” Ben Jonson, “Oh, that joy so soon should waste.” Ben Jonson, “To Celia.” Jenny Joseph, “Warning.” John Keats, “La Belle Dame sans Merci.” John Keats, “Ode to a Nightingale.” Philip Larkin, “Aubade.” Audre Lorde, “Black Mother Woman.” Marianne Moore, “Silence.” Pat Mora, “Immigrants.” Sharon Olds, “I Go Back to May 1937.” Sharon Olds, “The Planned Child.” Sharon Olds, “The Victims.” Mary Oliver, “The Black Snake.” Dorothy Parker, “Resume.” Linda Pastan, “I am learning to abandon the world.” Marge Piercy, “Sentimental Poem.” Marge Piercy, “A Work of Artifice.” Sylvia Plath, “Mad Girl’s Love Song.” Sylvia Plath, “Spinster.” Sylvia Plath, “Wuthering Heights.” Ezra Pound, “Salutation.” Adrienne Rich, “Poetry: 1.” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “The Mill.” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Mr. Flood’s Party.” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Richard Cory.” Theodore Roethke, “I knew a woman.” Theodore Roethke, “My Papa’s Waltz.” Christina Rossetti, “Song.” Michael Ryan, “Letter from an Institution.” Anne Sexton, “Young.” William Shakespeare, “Let me not to the marriage of true minds.” Gary Short, “Stick Figure.” Charles Simic, “Evening Walk.” Charles Simic, “Grayheaded Schoolchildren.” David R, Slavitt, “Raptures.” Stevie Smith, “Not Waving but Drowning.” Gary Soto, “Small Town with One Road.” Edmund Spenser, “One day I wrote her name upon the strand.” Wallace Stevens, “Anecdote of the Jar.” Wallace Stevens, “The Death of a Soldier.” Wallace Stevens, “Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock.” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “The Oak.” Dylan Thomas, “Fern Hill.” John Updike, “Ex-Basketball Player.” Mona Van Duyn, “In Bed with a Book.” David Wagoner, “Return to the Swamp.” Walt Whitman, “A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and Dim.” Walt Whitman, “To a Stranger.” Walt Whitman, “Whoever You Are Holding Me Now in Hand.” William Carlos Williams, “Spring and All.” William Wordsworth, “I wandered lonely as a cloud.” William Wordsworth, “My heart leaps up when I behold.” William Wordsworth, “The Solitary Reaper.” William Butler Yeats, “The Lake Isle of Innisfree.” William Butler Yeats, “Sailing to Byzantium.” William Butler Yeats, “The Second Coming.” William Butler Yeats, “The Wild Swans at Coole.”
The Elements of Drama.
1. The Nature of Drama.
Reviewing Chapter One. Understanding and Evaluating Drama. Susan Glaspell, TRIFLES. Jane Martin, RODEO. Jose Rivera, TAPE. Lynn Nottage, POOF! Edward Albee, THE SANDBOX. David Ives, TIME FLIES.
2. Realistic and Nonrealistic Drama.
Reviewing Chapter Two. Henrik Ibsen, A DOLL HOUSE. Tennessee Williams, THE GLASS MENAGERIE. Luis Valdez, LOS VENDIDOS.
3. Tragedy and Comedy.
Reviewing Chapter Three. Sophocles, OEDIPUS REX. William Shakespeare, OTHELLO, THE MOOR OF VENICE. Moliere, THE MISANTHROPE. Anton Chekhov, THE CHERRY ORCHARD. Plays for Further Reading. Arthur Miller, DEATH OF A SALESMAN. Samuel Beckett, KRAPP’S LAST TAPE. August Wilson, FENCES. Wendy Wasserstein, TENDER OFFER. Terrence McNally, ANDRE’S MOTHER.

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