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Featuring new experiments, a new essay, and new coverage of nanotechnology, this organic chemistry laboratory textbook offers a comprehensive treatment of laboratory techniques including small-scale and some microscale methods that use standard-scale ("macroscale") glassware and equipment. The book is organized based on essays and topics of current interest and covers a large number of traditional organic reactions and syntheses, as well as experiments with a biological or health science focus. Seven introductory technique-based experiments, thirteen project-based experiments, and sections on green chemistry and biofuels spark students' interest and engage them in the learning process. Instructors may choose to offer Cengage Learning's optional Premium Website, which contains videos on basic organic laboratory techniques.
- The Third Edition features a new essay, "Biofuels," and two new experiments: Experiment 25, "Biodiesel" and Experiment 26, "Ethanol from Corn."
- Nanotechnology is introduced with a new demonstration in Experiment 1 forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM).
- Coverage of green chemistry is expanded and revised; and all new spectra are included in Technique 26 "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Proton NMR)."
- An expanded section of project-based experiments now includes a new Experiment 64, "Green Epoxidation of Chalcones" and a new Experiment 65, "Cyclopropanation Reactions on Chalcones." In all of these experiments, students must either solve a significant problem or they must generate all or part of a procedure. Intended to promote critical thinking, these experiments not only challenge students, but also give them a feeling of what it is like to "do" research in chemistry.
- Instructors may choose to offer a new Premium Website that includes video demonstrations of key techniques in the book. Each of video has a series of questions with instant grading and feedback, so students can test their understanding of the TECHNIQUES and email their assessment results to their instructors.
- The authors include introductory, techniques-based experiments first to meet the needs of instructors who do not want to jump immediately into advanced material.
- The textbook contains a variety of well-written, comprehensive, and pre-tested small-scale experiments using standard-scale (macroscale) glassware and equipment.
- Essays and examples on contemporary topics, such as biofuels and nanotechnology are provided to spark student interest and engage them in the learning process.
- Green chemistry is now better integrated due to its importance as a topic for students.
- Infrared, proton NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy is incorporated into many experiments. Some experiments also have an option to use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
WELCOME TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
Laboratory Safety. Organization of the Textbook. Advance Preparation. Budgeting Time. Purpose.
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES.
Experiment 1. Solubility.
Experiment 2. Crystallization.
Experiment 3. Extraction.
Experiment 4. A Separation and Purification Scheme.
Experiment 4A. Extractions with a Separatory Funnel.
Experiment 4B. Extractions with a Screw-Cap Centrifuge Tube
Experiment 5. Chromatography.
Experiment 5A. Thin-Layer Chromatography.
Experiment 5B. Selecting the Correct Solvent for Thin-Layer Chromatography.
Experiment 5C. Monitoring a Reaction with Thin Layer Chromatography.
Experiment 5D. Column Chromatography.
Experiment 6. Simple and Fractional Distillation
Experiment 7. Infrared Spectroscopy and Boiling-Point Determination
Experiment 8. Acetylsalicylic Acid.
Experiment 9. Acetaminophen.
Essay. Identification of Drugs.
Experiment 10.TLC Analysis of Analgesic Drugs.
Experiment 11. Isolation of Caffeine.
Experiment 11A. Extraction of Caffeine from Tea.
Experiment 11B. Isolation of Caffeine from a Tea Bag.
Essay. Esters—Flavors and Fragrances.
Experiment 12: Isopentyl Acetate (Banana Oil).
Essay, Terpenes and Phenylpropanoids.
Experiment 13. Isolation of Eugenol from Cloves.
Essay. Stereochemical Theory of Odor.
Experiment 14. Spearmint and Caraway Oil: (+)- and (-)- Carvones.
Essay.The Chemistry of Vision.
Experiment 15. Isolation of Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Pigments from Spinach.
Essay: Ethanol and Fermentation Chemistry.
Experiment 16. Ethanol from Sucrose.
PART II: INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR MODELING.
Essay: Molecular Modeling and Molecular Mechanics.
Experiment 17. An Introduction to Molecular Modeling.
Experiment 17A. The Conformations of n-Butane: Local Minima.
Experiment 17B. Cyclohexane Chair and Boat Conformations.
Experiment 17C. Substituted Cyclohexane Rings (Critical Thinking Exercise).
Experiment 17D. cis- and trans-2-Butene.
Essay: Computational Chemistry - Ab initio and Semiempirical Methods.
Experiment 18. Computational Chemistry.
Experiment 18A. Heats of Formation: Isomerism, Tautomerism, and Regioselectivity.
Experiment 18B. Heats of Reactions: SN1 Reaction Rates.
Experiment 18C. Density-Electrostatic Potential. Maps: Acidities of Carboxylic Acids.
Experiment 18D. Density -Electrostatic Potential Maps: Carbocations.
Experiment 18E. Density -LUMO Maps: Reactivities of Carbonyl Groups.
PART III: PREPARATIONS AND REACTIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
Experiment 19. Reactivities of Some Alkyl Halides.
Experiment 20. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions: Competing Nucleophiles.
Experiment 20A. Competing Nucleophiles with 1-Butanol or 2-Butanol.
Experiment 20B. Competing Nucleophiles with 2-Methyl-2-Propanol.
Experiment 20C. Analysis.
Experiment 21. Synthesis of n-Butyl Bromide and t-Pentyl Chloride.
Experiment 21A. n-Butyl Bromide.
Experiment 21B. t-Pentyl Chloride.
Experiment 22. 4-Methylcyclohexene
Essay. Fats and Oils.
Experiment 23. Methyl Stearate from Methyl Oleate.
Essay: Petroleum and Fossil Fuels.
Experiment 24. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Gasolines.
Experiment 25. Biodiesel.
Experiment 25A. Biodiesel from Coconut Oil.
Experiment 25B. Biodiesel from Other Oils.
Experiment 25C. Analysis of Biodiesel.
Experiment 26. Ethanol from Corn.
Essay: Green Chemistry.
Experiment 27. Chiral Reduction of Ethyl Acetoacetate; Optical Purity Determination.
Experiment 27A. Chiral Reduction of Ethyl Acetoacetate.
Experiment 27B. NMR Determination of the Optical Purity of Ethyl (S)-3-Hydroxybutanoate.
Experiment 28. Nitration of Aromatic Compounds Using a Recyclable Catalyst.
Experiment 29. Reduction of Ketones Using Carrots as Biological Reducing Agents Experiment 30. Resolution of (+/-)-alpha-Phenylethylamine and Determination of Optical Purity.
Experiment 30A. Resolution of (+/-)-alpha-Phenylethylamine.
Experiment 30B. Determination of Optical Purity Using NMR and a Chiral Resolving Agent.
Experiment 31. An Oxidation-Reduction Scheme: Borneol, Camphor, Isoborneol.
Experiment 32. Multistep Reaction Sequences: The Conversion of Benzaldehyde to Benzilic Acid.
Experiment 32A. Preparation of Benzoin by Thiamine Catalysis.
Experiment 32B. Preparation of Benzil.
Experiment 32C. Preparation of Benzilic Acid.
Experiment 33. Triphenylmethanol and Benzoic Acid.
Experiment 33A. Triphenylmethanol.
Experiment 33B. Benzoic Acid.
Experiment 34. Aqueous-Based Organozinc Reactions.
Experiment 35. Sonogashira Coupling of Iodosubstituted Aromatic Compounds with Alkynes Using a Palladium Catalyst.
Experiment 36. Grubbs Catalyzed Metathesis of Eugenol with 1,4-Butenediol to Prepare a Natural Product.
Experiment 37. The Aldol Condensation Reaction: Preparation of Benzalacetophenones (Chalcones).
Experiment 38. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation Reaction.
Experiment 39. Preparation of an ,-Unsaturated Ketone via Michael and Aldol Condensation Reactions.
Experiment 40. Preparation of Triphenylpyridine.
Experiment 41. 1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene.
Experiment 42. Relative Reactivities of Several Aromatic Compounds.
Experiment 43. Nitration of Methyl Benzoate.
Essay. Local Anesthetics.
Experiment 44. Benzocaine.
Essay. Pheromones: Insect Attractants and Repellants.
Experiment 45. N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide: The Insect Repellent "OFF."
Essay: Sulfa Drugs.
Experiment 46. Sulfa Drugs: Preparation of Sulfanilamide.
Essay: Polymers and Plastics.
Experiment 47. Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Polyester, Nylon, and Polystyrene.
Experiment 47A. Polyesters.
Experiment 47B. Polyamide (Nylon).
Experiment 47C. Polystyrene.
Experiment 47D. Infrared Spectra of Polymer Samples.
Experiment 48. Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) Using a Grubbs Catalyst: A Three Step Synthesis of a Polymer.
Experiment 48A. Diels-Alder Reaction of Furan and Maleic Anhydride.
Experiment 48B. Ring Opening of Anhydride in Methanol.
Experiment 48C. Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP).
Experiment 49. Diels-Adler Reaction
Experiment 49A. Conversion of the Diels-Adler Adduct to the Diester
Experiment 49B. Synthesizing the Polymer by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP)
Essay. Diels–Alder Reaction and Insecticides.
Experiment 50. The Diels–Alder Reaction of Cyclopentadiene with Maleic Anhydride.
Experiment 51. Diels-Adler Reaction with Anthracine-9-Methanol.
Experiment 52. Photoreduction of Benzophenone and Rearrangement of Benzpinacol to Benzopinacolone.
Experiment 52A. Photoreduction of Benzophenone.
Experiment 52B. Synthesis of -Benzopinacolone: The Acid-Catalyzed Rearrangement of Benzpinacol.
Essay. Fireflies and Photochemistry.
Experiment 53. Luminol.
Essay. The Chemistry of Sweeteners.
Experiment 54. Carbohydrates.
Experiment 55. Analysis of a Diet Soft Drink by HPLC.
Part IV: IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES.
Experiment 56. Identification of Unknowns.
Experiment 56A. Solubility Tests.
Experiment 56B. Tests for the Elements (N, S, X).
Experiment 56C. Tests for Unsaturation.
Experiment 56D. Aldehydes and Ketones.
Experiment 56E. Carboxylic Acids.
Experiment 56F. Phenols.
Experiment 56G. Amines.
Experiment 56H. Alcohols.
Experiment 56I. Esters.
PART V: PROJECT-BASED EXPERIMENTS.
Experiment 57. Preparation of a C-4 or C-5 Acetate Ester.
Experiment 58. Isolation of Essential Oils from Allspice, Caraway, Cinnamon, Cloves, Cumin, Fennel, or Star Anise.
Experiment 58A. Isolation of Essential Oils by Steam Distillation.
Experiment 58B. Identification of the Constituents of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
Experiment 58C. Investigation of the Essential Oils of Herbs and Spices-Mini-Research Project.
Experiment 59. Competing Nucleophiles in SN1 and SN2 Reactions: Investigations Using 2-Pentanol and 3-Pentanol.
Experiment 60. Friedel-Crafts Acylation.
Experiment 61. The Analysis of Antihistamine Drugs by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
Experiment 62. Carbonation of an Unknown Aromatic Halide.
Experiment 63. The Aldehyde Enigma.
Experiment 64. Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones: A Guided-Inquiry Experience.
Experiment 65. Green Epoxidation of Chalcones.
Experiment 66: Cyclopropanation Reactions of Chalcones.
Experiment 67. Michael and Aldol Condensation Reactions.
Experiment 68. Esterification Reactions of Vanillin: The Use of NMR to Solve a Structure Proof Problem.
Experiment 69. An Oxidation Puzzle.
PART VI: THE TECHNIQUES.
Technique 1. Laboratory Safety.
Technique 2. The Laboratory Notebook, Calculations, and Laboratory Records.
Technique 3. Laboratory Glassware: Care and Cleaning.
Technique 4. How to Find Data for Compounds: Handbooks and Catalogues.
Technique 5. Measurement of Volume and Weight.
Technique 6. Heating and Cooling Methods.
Technique 7. Reaction Methods.
Technique 8. Filtration.
Technique 9. Physical Constants of Solids: The Melting Point.
Technique 10. Solubility.
Technique 11. Crystallization: Purification of Solids.
Technique 12. Extractions, Separations, and Drying Agents.
Technique 13. Physical Constants of Liquids: The Boiling Point and Density.
Technique 14. Simple Distillation.
Technique 15. Fractional Distillation, Azeotropes.
Technique 16. Vacuum Distillation, Manometers.
Technique 17. Sublimation.
Technique 18. Steam Distillation.
Technique 19. Column Chromatography.
Technique 20. Thin-Layer Chromatography.
Technique 21. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Technique 22. Gas Chromatography.
Technique 23. Polarimetry.
Technique 24. Refractometry.
Technique 25. Infrared Spectroscopy.
Technique 26. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Proton NMR).
Technique 27. Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
Technique 28. 6 Mass Spectrometry.
Technique 29. Guide to the Chemical Literature.
Appendix 1: Tables of Unknowns and Derivatives.
Appendix 2: Procedure for Preparing Derivatives.
Appendix 3: Index of Spectra.
Cengage provides a range of supplements that are updated in coordination with the main title selection. For more information about these supplements, contact your Learning Consultant.
PowerLecture with ExamView®
This digital presentation tool contains prepared lecture slides and a valuable library of resources such as art, photos, and tables from the text that faculty can use to create personalized lecture presentations. Also included is the complete Instructor's Resource Manual, sample chapters of student supplements, and ExamView digital test bank.
The Laboratory Manual, with the assistance of co-author T.K. Vinod at Western Illinois University, includes an experiment on green chemistry, pre-laboratory exercises, and safety instructions.
Study Guide with Solutions Manual
Revised with the assistance of author Christopher Hadad, Ohio State University, the Study Guide and Solutions Manual offers solutions to both in-text and end-of-chapter problems with an explanation of the answers. For each chapter, the guide provides a chapter summary, learning objectives, and a summary of synthetic methods and reaction mechanisms. Review problems on synthesis and 100 multiple-choice sample test questions offer students additional problem-solving practice.
Study Guide with Solutions Manual