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This concise rhetoric features practical advice for writing the four most common types of argument: factual, causal, evaluation, and recommendation. Structured around three main phases of writing -- focusing, supporting, and reviewing--For Argument's Sake, Fifth Edition, helps students find and focus a claim, gather and organize supporting information, and refine and polish their argument. Numerous sample arguments, including several pieces written by students, illustrate principles and strategies for strong, compelling writing.
- Updated! Chapter 4 now includes coverage of supporting arguments with visuals.
- New! A new section on reading arguments critically is part of Chapter 12.
- Updated! Examples throughout the book have been updated to reflect contemporary concerns.
- A readable writing style, abundant examples, and step-by-step guidance on writing arguments make this text extremely student-friendly.
- The "Evaluating Electronic Sources" section in Chapter 6 covers electronic research and Internet resources for supporting arguments.
- Group writing activities and exercises offer more opportunities for instructors to promote collaborative learning.
- The text's process orientation gives detailed consideration to audience, motivation, style, and revision.
- Activities in each chapter give equal emphasis to forming and analyzing written arguments.
An Extended Definition
The Classes of Argument
Argument through Image
The Argument Process
2. Where Writing Begins: Motives and Audience
Motives for Writing
The Importance of Audience
3. The Claim
How Claims Work
Classifying your Claim
4. An Argument's Support
Some Varieties of Support
Supporting your Argument Visually
Arranging your Argument's Support
5. Making Reasonable Arguments: Formal and Informal Logic
The Toulmin Model: A Modern Variant of Formal Logic
6. Arguing Fact
What Is a Fact?
Supporting Facts Reported by Primary and Secondary Sources
Supporting Personally Experienced Facts
Supporting Factual Generalizations
Two Sample Factual Arguments
7. Arguing Cause
Distinguishing Among Sufficient Causes
Supporting Causal Claims
Two Sample Causal Arguments
8. Arguing Evaluations
Evaluative Subjects and Terms
Establishing the Definition of the Evaluative Term
Arguing the Evaluation
Further Methods of Supporting Evaluations
The Varieties of Evaluations
Sample Ethical Evaluation
9. Arguing Recommendations
Audience Needs and Values
Recommendations Emphasizing the Present
Recommendations Emphasizing the Future
Recommendations that Consider Present and Future
Two Sample Recommendations
10. Writing and Image
The Role of Voice
The Virtues and Limitations of Plain Writing
Figures of Speech
Connotative Language and Slanting
The Music of Language
11. Introductions and Conclusions
Writing a First Draft, Revising, and Editing
Some Suggestions for Successful Revising
An Example of Revision