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This successful world history reader in the popular DISCOVERING series contains a six-part pedagogical framework that guides students through the process of historical inquiry and explanation. Each chapter is organized within the same pedagogical framework: The Problem, Background, The Method, The Evidence, Questions to Consider, and Epilogue. The text emphasizes historical study as interpretation rather than memorization of data. The Fourth Edition integrates new documents and revised coverage throughout, while the comparative chapters contribute to a more thorough and balanced examination of global history.
- Volume II includes three new chapters: Cross-Cultural Encounters: Travel, Religion, Conquests, and Trade (Chapter 1; this chapter is also Chapter 14 in Volume I); The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World (Chapter 6); and Reform and Reaction in the Soviet Union and China at the End of the Cold War (Chapter 14).
- Chapters 3, 4, and 5 have been reworked: Chapter 3 is now The Confucian Family: Social Tyranny or Group Harmony; Chapter 4 is now Gender, Labor, and Property in Rural Societies; and Chapter 5 is now The Sweet Nexus: Sugar and the Origins of the Modern World.
- Chapter 3 has been recast to focus on the contrast between the modern and traditional views of the individual and the family.
- Chapter 4 has been expanded to include coverage of gender.
- Each chapter is divided into the following sections: The Problem, Background, The Method, The Evidence, Questions to Consider, and Epilogue.
- Actual documents and artifacts are used as the sources from which students develop answers to historical questions.
- An Instructor’s Manual, written by the authors of the text, gives instructors helpful tips on how to use this text in their course.
China: Zheng He’s Inscriptions in Stone, 1431. Zhang Han’s Essay on Merchants. The Biography of Zhu Jiefu. Chang Hsieh’s Advice to Traders (1618). Europe: Christopher Columbus Journal, 1530s. Las Casas, Teaching the True Religion (1530s). Richard Hakluyt (the Younger), Discourse on Western Planting (1584). Sir John Chardin, Travels in Persia. Thomas Mun, England’s Treasure (1664). Muslim Regions: Travels of Ibn Battuta, c. 1353. Evliyá Efendí, Narrative of Travels. Africa: Nzinga Mbemba, King of Kongo, to the King of Portugal, 1526. Pate Chronicle. Statistics: Rates of Population Growth, 1000-1820 (ave. annual compound growth rates). Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (in 1990 international dollars), 1000-1700. Population and Gross Domestic Product Growth, 1500-1700 (in %). Urbanization Ratios in China and Western Europe, 1000-1700 (population in cities 10,000 and over as percentage of total population). Slave Exports from Africa, By Destination (000s), 650-1800. World Gold Output by Region, 1493-1700 (in million fine oz.). Gold and Silver Shipments from the Americas to Europe, 1500-1700 (metric tons). Exports of Gold and Silver from Europe, 1600-1700 (metric tons of silver equivalent). Tobacco Imported to England from Virginia and Maryland Colonies, 1620-1700 (000s pounds). Number of Ships Sailing to Asia by Country, 1500-1700. Sugar Exports from Barbados to London, 1651-1700 (in tons). Sugar Production in Brazil, 1600-1625 (in metric tons). Wealth Distribution in Mughul Empire, c. 1600 (in percentages).
2. VILLAGES IN AN ERA OF CENTRALIZING STATES (1450–1650).
Village By-laws from Great Horwood. Court Roll of Teynton, 1541. Statute of Henry VIII Regarding the Shooting of Longbows, 1511. King and Messenger, from the Smithfield Decretals, ca. 1340. Report from the General Inspection of the Chupaychu, 1549. Pedro de Cieza de León, Crónicas, 1553. Extract from Garcilosa de la Vega. Illustration from Guaman Poma de Ayala, El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno. So Regulations. From Joint Petition by Villagers, 1407. Decrees Regarding Military Service of Villagers. Regulations for Villagers Issued by the Tokugawa Shogunate, 1643. Screen with Village Scene by Kusumi Morikage.
3. THE CONFUCIAN FAMILY: SOCIAL TYRANNY OR GROUP HARMONY.
Ming Family Portrait, late 16th century. Family Instructions for the Miu Lineage, late 16th century. Yüan Chiang, Section of “The East Garden” Handscroll, late 17th century. Gui Youguang, “A Sketch of My Mother,” late 16th century. Zhong Yong (Chung Yung)--Doctrine of the Mean, ca. 2nd century B.C.E. Xiao Jing (Hsiao Ching): the Classic of Filiality, ca. 2nd century B.C.E. From Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi), Family Rituals, 12th century. The Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor, 1681. From Pu Suling (P’u Su-ling), The Bonds of Matrimony, 17th century. Zheng Xie (Cheng Hsieh), “Mother-in-law Is Cruel,” 18th century. From Chen Duxiu (Ch’en Tu-hsiu), “The Ways of Confucius and Modern Life,” 1916.
4. GENDER, LABOR, AND PROPERTY IN RURAL SOCIETIES (1500–1800).
From the Lê Code, Vietnam, 16th–17th century. From the Agama Law Code, Java, 16th century. From Antonio de Morga, History of the Philippine Islands, 1609. Illustration from a Map of the Philippines, 1735. From William Marsden, The History of Sumatra, 1783. William ten Rhyne, A Short Account of the Cape of Good Hope, 1686. Extract from Peter Kolb, The Present State of the Cape of Good-Hope, 1719. Pen and Ink Drawing of Khoikhoi Family and Stock, Unknown Artist, ca. 1700. Pen and Ink Drawing of Khoikhoi Woman Milking, Unknown Artist, ca. 1700. From the Law Code of the Territory of Salzburg, Austria, 1526. Regulations for Vineyard Workers in the Duchy of Württemberg, 1550. From the Land Register in the Silesian Village of Zedlitz, 1790. Johann Jacob Grümbke’s Description of Harvesting Grain in Rügen, 1805. Hay-making in Germany, 1532.
5. SWEET NEXUS: SUGAR AND THE ORIGINS OF THE MODERN WORLD (1600–1800).
Frederick Slare Defends Sugar, 1715. E. T. Parris Cartoon Showing English Attitudes Toward Sugar Consumption. A Letter to a Member of Parliament, 1745. William Blake, “Europe Supported by Africa and America,” 1796. Importation and Population Statistics for the British West Indies in the 18th Century. From Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1814. From Richard Ligon, A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes, 1673. From W. Clark, “Ten Views of Antigua,” 1823. Advertisement for East India Sugar Basins. Selection from The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua, 1854.
6. THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD (1750–1830).
Excerpt from The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America, 1776. The Constitution of the United States, ratified 1788. The First Ten Amendments to the Constitution, known familiarly as the Bill of Rights, ratified 1791. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789. Excerpts from the French Constitution of 3 September, 1791. Excerpts from the Saint-Domingue Constitution of 1801, also referred to as Toussaint Louverture’s Constitution, promulgated on July 8, 1801. Federal Constitution for the States of Venezuela, Ratified by Congress on December 21, 1811. The Brazilian Constitution of 1824. Abolition of Slavery in the Atlantic World, 1801–1888. Definitions of Citizenship, United States, France, Saint-Domingue, Venezuela, and Brazil.
7. CONSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN EXPANSION IN AFRICA AND THE PACIFIC (1850–1890).
Kingdom of Hawaii Constitution of 1852. King Kamehameha V Addresses the Hawaiian Legislature, 1864. Hawaii’s Last Queen on American Annexation. Coat of Arms of the Hawaiian Monarchy. An Argument for African Self-Rule, 1868. Fante Asafo Flag. The Constitution of the Fante Confederation, 1871. A Fante Appeal to British Authorities, 1872.
8. INDUSTRIALIZING THE NATION: GERMANY AND JAPAN (1860–1900).
Hagen Rolling Mill, 1860s. Krupp Steel Works, 1912. From Max Weber, Inaugural Lecture at Freiberg University, 1895. Cartoon, “Through Darkest Germany, a View Inland,” 1899. A German Worker’s Apartment, 1910. The Erfurt Social Democratic Party Program, 1890. From Otto von Bismarck, Address to the Reichstag Proposing State Social Insurance, 1881. Ando Hiroshíge, Woodblock Print of Tokyo’s First Railway Station, 1870s. From Okubo Toshimichi, Recommendation on Industrialization, 1874. Kawanabe Gyosai, Woodblock Print of Trade Fair of 1877. From Ito Hirobumi, Speech at a Homecoming Celebration, 1895. Cartoon from Tokyo Puck, “Taxes Rise After the Russo-Japanese War,” 1905. Ichiyosai Kuniteru, Woodblock Print of an Early Japanese Silk Mill, 19th Century. “Song of the Living Corpses,” Japanese Workers Song, late 19th century.
9. MODERNITY: FROM PROMISE TO THREAT (1790–1930).
From Jean Antoine Nicholas de Condorcet, The Progress of the Human Mind. “The First Half of the Nineteenth Century Progress of the Nation, and the Race.” Walt Whitman, “Years of the Modern.” From Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. From Mohandis K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj. Olive Schreiner, Woman and Labour, 1911. A Declaration of Beliefs by the New Youth. Still Shots from Fritz Lang’s Film Metropolis. José Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses. Excerpts from Jawaharlal Nehru, Glimpses of World History, 1933.
10. NATIONALISM, MOTHERHOOD, AND WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN BRAZIL, EGYPT, AND JAPAN (1890S–1930S).
Francisca Diniz, “Equality of Rights,” O Sexo Feminino, 1890. Bertha Lutz, Letter to the Editor, Revista da Semana, December 23, 1918. Editorials from Revista Feminina, 1921 and 1922. Qasim Amin, extracts from The Liberation of Women, 1899. Huda Shaarawi, extracts from Harem Years, 1940s. Saiza Nabarawi, Editorial in L’Egyptienne, 1933. Hiratsuka Raichō, Speech to the Association of New Women, 1919. Hiratsuka Raichō and Ichikawa Fusae, Preamble to Bill Allowing Women to Join Political Groups, 1920. Yosano Akiko, Suffrage Song, 1920s. Manifesto of the Founding of the League for the Realization of Women’s Suffrage, 1924.
11. LANDS OF DESIRE: DEPARTMENT STORES, ADVERTISING, AND THE NEW CONSUMERISM (1910S–1930S).
Strawbridge & Clothier, Philadelphia, 1922. Mappin Stores, Brazil. Mappin Stores, Brazil. Bon Marché, Paris, 1923. Advertisement for corsets, Istanbul, 1911. Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada, 1926. Hudson’s Bay Company, Canada, 1926. Myer’s, Australia, 1929. Myer’s, Australia, 1922. Cigarette Advertisement in Liangyou buabao, February 1926. Women’s Fashions, Both Chinese and “Foreign” Styles, in Liangyou buabao, July 1935. Poster Advertising Mitsukoshi Department Store, 1910. Garlick’s, South Africa, 1926.
12. TOTAL WAR: THE COST OF UNLIMITED CONFLICT (1914–1945).
Carl von Clausewitz, On War, 1832. Lloyd George on the Battle of the Somme, July 1, 1916. French and British World War I Posters. Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, “Features of the War,” Fourth Supplement to The London Gazette, Tuesday, April 8, 1919. Paul Valéry, “The Crisis of the Spirit,” 1919. Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929. Report on Rape of Nanking, New York Times, 1937. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Annual Message to Congress, January 6, 1942. Rosie the Riveter, American Propaganda Icon. Reichsmarschal Hermann Goering, German Radio Broadcast, October 4, 1942. President Roosevelt’s Radio Address on Casablanca Conference, February 12, 1943. United States Strategic Bomb Survey (Pacific War), 1946. The End of a Bake Shop: Reminiscence of Tanaka Toki.
13. CRUCIBLE OF CONFLICT: THE SUEZ CRISIS (1956).
Sir Anthony Eden, British Foreign Secretary, Discusses British Obligations, June 18, 1952. From Gamal Abdel Nasser, The Philosophy of the Revolution, 1959. Statement on Foreign Affairs by Moshe Sharett, Israel Premier and Foreign Minister, October 18, 1955. Gamal Abdel Nasser Announces the Nationalization of the Suez Canal, July 26, 1956. Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt, August 1, 1956. English Cartoon, “The Colossus of Suez,” 1956. The British Cabinet Reacts to the Nationalization of the Suez Canal, July 27, 1956. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower Cautions Sir Anthony Eden on the Use of Force, September 3, 1956. Sir Anthony Eden, British Prime Minister, Replies to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, September 6, 1956. From the Memoirs of Moshe Dayan, Israeli Minister of Defense, 1976. Sèvres Protocol, October 22–24, 1956. Draft Resolution from the United States to the UN Security Council, October 30, 1956. Statement by Jawaharlal Nehru, Indian Prime Minister, November 1, 1956. Soviet Response to the Aggression Against Egypt, October 31, 1956. Discussion by the British Cabinet, November 28, 1956. Exchange Between U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and U.S. Senator Richard Russell, January 2, 1957. Letter from British Prime Minister Eden to Senior Cabinet Ministers, December 28, 1956. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt Discusses Suez, 1966. British Cartoon, 1962.
14. REFORM AND REACTION IN THE SOVIET UNION AND CHINA AT THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1985-1991).
Mikhail Gorbachev on Glasnost and Perestroika, 1987. Andrei Sakharov on Glasnost and Democratization, 1989. Simple Questions from a Seventeen-Year-Old. KGB, Open Your Doors!. Glasnost is All Very Nice, But…. Silence is Golden?. Let’s Spend Our Money on the Living!. The Fate of Empires. Market Relations. How Fascism Starts. Get the Russians!. Small Fires. An American View of Moscow, 1990. The Coup of August, 1991. Boris Yeltsin Takes a Stand for Democracy. Mikhail Gorbachev Resigns, 1991. Report on China’s Student Protests, July 1988. Mourning Hu Yaobang, April 1989. A Student Meeting at Peking University, April 1989. Declaration of a Hunger Strike, May 1989. Declaration of Martial Law, May 1989. The Decision to Clear Tiananmen Square, June 1989. Students’ Reactions to the Arrival of the Military, June 1989. Report from a Student Protestor, June 1989. The Unknown Rebel in Tiananmen Square, June 1989. The Report of the Army that Cleared the Square, June 1989. Official Criticizes Zhao Ziyang, June 1989. The Memoirs of Zhao Ziyang, 1999.
15. RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM IN THE MODERN WORLD: FAITH, IDENTITY, AND CONTEMPORARY POLITICS (1970S–PRESENT).
Christianity: Wayne Grudem, Bible Doctrine. Pat Robertson, “God’s Protection Lifted from America,” 2003. Pat Robertson Links Haiti Quake to Pact with Devil. James Dobson Mourns Obama Victory, Forecasts Significant Abortion Promotion. Islam: Ayatollah Khomeini, New Year’s Message, March 21, 1980. Osama bin Laden Address “The Towers of Lebanon,” October 29, 2004. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Speech, October 26, 2005. Judaism: Shlomo Avineri, “Zionism as a Permanent Revolution,” 1981. Rabbi Eliezer Waldman, Article in Jewish Press (New York), June 21, 2002. From Eliezer Waldman, “The Divine Zionist Roadmap,” 2003. Menachem Mendel Schneerson, “What Makes a Jew ‘Jewish’?.” Hinduism: M. S. Golwalkar, Selections from We, or Our Nationhood Defined, 1938. David Gardner (journalist) on K.S. Sudarshan. “Hindu Party Seeks to Ban Foreign Churches in India.” Shri L.K. Advani, Presidential Address to the National Executive Branch of the BJP, November 24, 2004.