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This primary source reader in the popular DISCOVERING series contains a six-part pedagogical framework that guides students through the process of historical inquiry and explanation. The text emphasizes historical study as interpretation rather than memorization of data. Each chapter is organized around the same pedagogical framework: The Problem, Background, The Method, The Evidence, Questions to Consider, and Epilogue. The Seventh Edition integrates new documents and revised coverage throughout. For example, the Reconstruction chapter, appearing in Volumes I and II, now explores Thomas Nast’s political cartoons and their effect on public opinion.
- New Chapter 1 delves into the complex situation of the early Roanoke settlement in Virginia, treating issues of ethnic conflict and the harsh realities of colonization.
- New Chapter 5 examines the Louisiana Purchase and its attendant issues of race and class controversy.
- New Chapter 6 delves into the question of mail delivered on Sunday, treating the role of religious observance in the still-fledgling United States.
- New Chapter 8 treats the burgeoning suffrage movement as well as the rise of the women’s rights movement, asking students to evaluate opposing views on the role of women.
- New Chapter 10 investigates the question of civil liberties in the case of Clement Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer from Ohio during the Civil War.
- New Chapter 11 (also Chapter 1 in Volume II) examines the career of political cartoonist Thomas Nast and his legacy of confronting injustice through visual art.
- Each chapter is organized around the same proven pedagogical framework: The Problem, Background, The Method, The Evidence, Questions to Consider, and Epilogue.
- By following this pattern, and using a variety of sources such as letters, maps, statistics, drawings, song lyrics, and cartoons, students learn to examine sources critically, the way historians do.
Colonization promotional literature. Early travelers’ reports on America. John White’s drawings of Native Americans. Accounts from the Roanoke Colony. Images of Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth.
2. THE THREAT OF ANNE HUTCHINSON.
Excerpts from the trial of Anne Hutchinson.
3. COLONIES, COMMERCE, AND EMPIRE: THE BRITISH PLANTATIONS SYSTEM IN THE CHESAPEAKE AND THE CARIBBEAN.
Statistics from the Chesapeake and Barbados in population, wealth distribution, agricultural production, slavery.
4. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN THE BOSTON MASSACRE? THE TRIAL OF CAPTAIN THOMAS PRESTON.
Map of the site of the Boston Massacre. Excerpts from Captain Preston’s deposition. Excerpts from trial testimony of witnesses. Attorneys’ summary remarks to the jury. Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre.
5. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP: THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE, 1803–1812.
Treaties. Congressional debates and speeches. Letter of President Jefferson. Official letters. Louisiana Governance Acts. Petition.
6. CHURCH, STATE, AND DEMOCRACY: THE SUNDAY MAIL CONTROVERSY, 1827–1831.
Pamphlets. Speeches. Senate committee reports.
7. LAND, GROWTH, AND JUSTICE: THE REMOVAL OF THE CHEROKEES.
Excerpt from President Andrew Jackson’s First Annual Message to Congress. Excerpt from President Thomas Jefferson’s letter to Captain Hendrick regarding the decline of the Indian population. Excerpt from William Penn (pseudonym for Jeremiah Evarts). Excerpt from speech in Congress by Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen. Petition from a Cherokee woman. Excerpt from John Ridge letter. Excerpts from the Cherokee Phoenix. Excerpt from letter by John Ross, principal chief of the Cherokee Nation.
8. FIGHTING FOR WOMEN’S EQUALITY.
Americans debate the nature of the sexes and women’s equality. The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Elizabeth Cady Stanton defends women’s rights.
9. THE “PECULIAR INSTITUTION”: SLAVES TELL THEIR OWN STORY.
Reminiscences and narratives of former slaves. Slave songs. Excerpts from the writings of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and John Thompson.
10. CIVIL LIBERTIES IN TIME OF WAR: THE CASE OF CLEMENT VALLANDIGHAM.
Numerous speeches by Clement Vallandigham, both in the House of Representatives and on the stump. Congressional resolutions. Petitions. President Lincoln’s reply.
11. RECONSTRUCTING RECONSTRUCTION: THE POLITICAL CARTOONIST AND PUBLIC OPINION.
Cartoons of Thomas Nast.